Permabond has over 50 years of adhesives experience. We've amassed a list of application tips for handling and storage of adhesives, suitable substrates, temperature effects, surface preparation, and adhesive removal during this time.
With this knowledge, Permabond has become a uniquely capable resource for communicating the positive effects Permabond products have in many areas around the globe. Recognizing the significance of this responsibility, we have produced this section to serve as an introduction to the most common considerations regarding the proper utilization of our products which include:
Within each technology section, there are various products to suit individual application requirements. Our chemists are available to assist in selecting the best product for your application or providing more application tips. Please get in touch with us with any questions.
Over the lifetime of an application, you can significantly reduce your adhesive waste by paying close attention to the adhesive storage conditions recommended by Permabond. Because of the various chemistries involved in the adhesives that Permabond manufactures, we have developed specific storage condition recommendations by product.
Review these recommendations prior to selecting an adhesive for your application, and follow them whenever possible. The shelf life of each Permabond adhesive is based on our experience with that product under controlled conditions.
Therefore, we are certain that these adhesives, when stored per our guidelines, will maintain their performance over the course of the shelf life given. Unfortunately, if you have not stored the adhesive according to these recommendations, we often cannot give reliable information about its performance.
A product’s shelf life is the length of time it can be stored under specified conditions without significant changes to its properties. Since these conditions ensure not only a long life, but also the best product performance, we recommend storing each adhesive under the conditions specified for it. Extreme temperatures, light exposure and humidity can affect the performance of many adhesives.
Permabond advises storing each adhesive type within the temperatures indicated below. However, please note that the shelf life and storage temperature may vary based on the package size. Therefore, use the following information as a guide only and contact Permabond’s technical team for any specific product information you require.
Store Permabond anaerobic adhesives and sealants in the unopened container at 5-25°C (41-77°F).
For maximum shelf life of Permabond cyanoacrylate adhesives, store unopened cyanoacrylate at 2°C (35°F) to 7°C (45°F). Bring unopened cyanoacrylate products to ambient temperature before opening the package. Once opened, leave the package at ambient temperature. Storage below 2°C (36°F) or greater than 8°C (46°F) can adversely affect product properties.
Store Permabond two-part epoxies at between 5-25°C (41-77°F) in their original unopened package.
Store Permabond one-part epoxies at between 2°C – 7°C (35°F – 45°F), in their original unopened package.
Store Permabond MS polymers in the original unopened container between 10°C to 25°C (50°F to 77°F)
Store Permabond polyurethane adhesives in the original unopened container between 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F) Store cartridges inverted.
Store Permabond structural acrylic adhesives in the original unopened container between 5-25°C (41-77°F). Certain products may be stored 2°C – 7°C (35°F – 45°F) to extend shelf life.
Ideal Permabond UV curable adhesive storage conditions are in the original unopened container between 5-25°C (41-77°F)
A critical factor in the success of any adhesive bond is the condition of the substrate surfaces being joined. Every assembly surface has unique characteristics, either inherent in its material make up, such as aluminum oxidation, or added during manufacturing, such as rust inhibitors. This guide provides an overview of several common substrates and their suitability for adhesive bonding. Consult a Permabond representative for a complete assessment of your assembly surfaces and determination of the best Permabond adhesive for your specific application.
The surface appears clean but has a thin oxide film that weakens the bond between the true aluminum surface and the adhesive. Some oxide films may be stable enough to provide a strong bond without any surface preparation. Aluminium is the exception. Permabond can help you evaluate your aluminum and advise which method of pre-treatment would be most appropriate to optimize bond performance. Oxide films form immediately, even after surface treatment. Surface bonding must take place as soon as possible to achieve maximum adhesion strength. See How To Bond Aluminum.
Mild steel alloys typically present surfaces readily able to be bonded. There are several adhesive technologies to choose from. See How to Bond Mild Steel.
It presents an oxide film that may weaken the bond between the true steel and the adhesive. Zinc plating may separate from the steel surface as a result of the adhesive. It may require chemical treatment to eliminate the zinc separation from the steel sheet.
The treated surface is both unsuitable and unreliable for adhesive bonding. Certain chemical treatment methods can present workable bonding surfaces. Consult with a Permabond representative to evaluate treated zinc-plated steel surface bonding applications.
Structural joints cannot be formed on PVC clad surfaces of mild steel. Cyanoacrylate adhesives will provide good adhesion to the PVC surface.
Structural joints cannot be formed on the painted surfaces of steel panels. Several Permabond adhesives will provide good adhesion to painted steel panels. Maximum adhesion will be achieved by those adhesives that will flex with the bending of thin sheet panels.
Depending on the application, chemical surface treatment may be necessary. Surface preparation with abrasion and a solvent wipe is suitable in most cases. However, it can depend on the finish – see How to Bond Stainless Steel.
Permabond cyanoacrylate adhesives bond well to these surfaces. Surface-activated toughened acrylics may not provide suitable gap-filling ability for large structural applications.
Structural joints cannot be formed on the acrylic face of these surfaces. Permabond cyanoacrylate adhesives will provide maximum adhesion to the acrylic-faced surface. The cyanoacrylate adhesive will however, in its liquid form, cause stress cracking on the acrylic face after prolonged exposure. Use a Permabond cyanoacrylate activator to accelerate cure and minimize exposure to any uncured adhesive.
Wood-faced Thermoset GRPs typically present surfaces readily able to be bonded. Several Permabond adhesives will provide good adhesion to these surfaces. Consult with a Permabond representative to evaluate wood-faced thermoset GRP surface bonding adhesives.
These structural composites, typically epoxy-based, bond well with a variety of Permabond adhesives.
Permabond cyanoacrylate adhesive will provide good adhesion to these surfaces. The adhesive, in its liquid form, will cause stress cracking on the surface after prolonged exposure, so be certain to contain the adhesive between two surfaces. This will ensure it cures quickly. Another option is UV cure adhesive. Learn more about bonding ABS.
Permabond POP primer can treat polyolefins before bonding with cyanoacrylate adhesive.
Permabond TA4605, TA4610, TA4611, and TA4631 bond polyolefin substrates with no surface treatment! These products create bonds strong enough to have the plastic stretch and fail before the bond. See the image here.
Depending upon the type of polyurethane, several adhesive technologies can be used. See surface preparation techniques and how to bond polyurethane.
Several adhesive technologies can be considered. Adhesive selection to bond PVC is based on whether the PVC substrate is rigid, flexible, or green PVC. See options to Bond PVC here.
Many environmental conditions affect how adhesives cure and perform over long periods of time. One of the most significant environmental factors is temperature. Minor changes in temperature can cause major changes in the cure speed and storage life of adhesives. Most organic adhesives have maximum continuous operating temperatures, and if exposed to higher temperatures for long periods of time, their performance drops significantly. Permabond has put together some guidelines for your reference to eliminate or control the impact of temperature effects on your application.
The temperature at which an adhesive is applied and used will affect its cure. All cure times quoted in Permabond Technical Data Sheets are taken at 23°C.
Anaerobic sealants are affected by a rise or fall in the temperature of the area in which they are being used. The general rule is for every 8°C (15°F) that the temperature increases, the time required for these adhesive to cure will be halved. Conversely, if the temperature is 8°C (15°F) cooler, the cure time will double.
Cyanoacrylates cure using surface moisture and are less affected by temperature. However, the humidity and substrate can affect the cure rate of cyanoacrylates.
Heat cure schedules for single-component epoxies can be found on the technical data sheets.
You can accelerate the cure rate of a 2-part epoxy with heat.
For effects on other adhesive technologies, such as structural acrylics, MS Polymers, and polyurethanes, please contact us.
Permabond’s adhesives are organic in their chemistry and, as such, generally have service temperature ranges between -50°C to 250°C (-60°F to 482°F). Please refer to an individual adhesive’s Technical Data Sheet for its specific product grade features including its temperature range.
For more information on how temperature may affect your application, please contact our technical team.
Although many of Permabond’s industrial adhesives provide excellent bonding to “as received” surfaces, proper preparation will dramatically improve adhesion strength and bond performance. A properly prepared component will present a uniformly clean surface, mechanically sound and correctly textured. A prepared surface will ensure strong and durable bonds, particularly when harsh usage environments are present. This guide provides an overview of several methods. Consult a Permabond representative for a complete assessment of your assembly surfaces and the determination of the best surface preparation method for your specific application.
If possible, remove surface oil or grease with an aqueous-based cleanser. When aqueous-based cleansers are ineffective, try isopropyl alcohol. If isopropyl alcohol is ineffective, try solvents such as acetone or methyl ethyl ketone. Test the surface material first as certain thermoplastics may crack or dissolve when reacting to various solvents.
Mechanical abrasion is a process of slightly roughening the surface of the components. The surface roughness should be kept to less than 0.1 microns (0.004 millimeters) to reduce the possibility of small contaminants or air bubbles trapped in the roughened surface and degrading the bond performance. Scarification is typically done with either an abrasion or a blasting process.
Abrade using 45 to 106 micron grit or a three-dimensional, non-woven abrasive fabric. Abrading can be done as either a wet or a dry process. If doing wet abrading, use only media designated as water-resistant. When preparing aluminum surfaces, always use the wet method to prevent the oxide pores from clogging with abraded contaminants. The proper surface condition has been achieved when the surface can be immersed in clean water, and when removed a water film remains unbroken for 30 seconds. Do not use iron- or steel-based grits on aluminum, copper, or stainless steel components.
Typically used on metallic components. It may also be used on heavy-duty plastics. Blast using 45 to 106 micron grit until the surface is uniform in cleanliness and texture.
Typically used on small metallic components. Blast using 1000 mesh grit suspended in either water or steam. In the event that a system uses water-soluble additives, consult the system manufacturer to eliminate contamination of the surface by the additives.
Non-mechanical surface preparation methods are typically only for high volume plastic or composite component production applications. Non-mechanical surface preparation modifies the chemical characteristics of the component’s surface to an optimum condition for adhesive bonding. Gas Flame Oxidizing is an economical and effective method of preparing plastic or composite surfaces, which rapidly adapts to changes in component topography.
Also known as Corona Discharge, this is an economical and effective method of preparing plastic or composite surfaces. Best suited for components with simple or flat topography.
This utilizes a discharge chamber to process large-volume component batches. Best suited for batches with complex or multiple component shapes. Requires greater initial capital investment; provides greater volume and part type processing than other non-mechanical surface preparation processes.
Requires extensive system design and calibration.
The three primary means to remove cured adhesive are:
Depending on the type of adhesive and the substrates or assembly in question, choose the easiest way to remove cured adhesive from the methods below.
For example, if trying to degrade a cyanoacrylate bond, keep in mind that they are brittle and often don’t have much peel strength. Also, they have poor resistance to polar solvents such as water. Warm soapy water works faster!
If you want to get an epoxy bond to fail, water isn’t going to help much. High temperature may be a better option. Many two component epoxies will fail at or below 200°F. If using heat to destroy a single component epoxy bond – raise that to 400°F.
These are available in a range of strengths. You can easily undo the low-strength products with tools such as spanners or wrenches. For high-strength permanent threadlocking adhesives, using heavy-duty tools can result in shearing the bolt that you are trying to undo. If you have used a threadlocker on a large diameter bolt and/or it has a long engagement, even if you have used a low-strength “dismantleable” product, it may be very difficult to undo due to the large bond area.
Placing a flat-bladed screwdriver or similar implement and hitting it with a hammer to prise the components apart should be enough to pop the gasket. Anaerobic adhesives are excellent in tensile shear or compression but weak under peel or cleavage stress. Once you have separated the components, remove the adhesive by scraping or brushing with a wire brush.
Normally these are low-strength products that you can undo with a suitably sized wrench. Like the threadlockers, if used on large diameter or long engagement pipes, these could prove more difficult to undo.
Retaining compounds are actually for permanent bonding of bearings, housings, shafts, keyways, and other concentric joints. They are typically very high strength and impossible to remove without using heat or chemicals.
Heating the bond area with a blow torch or placing the item in an oven to heat up will help weaken the adhesive. Attempt adhesive de-bonding while the parts are as hot as possible (once they cool back down, the original strength will come back!). You will require oven or foundry gloves to hold the parts. After you’ve successfully disassembled the components, clean thoroughly before re-bonding. A wire brush, wire wool, as well as wet and dry paper are all good for removing cured anaerobic (which often appears as a white-colored powdery solid). Wipe down with acetone. Stubborn cured lumps will come off after soaking in an aggressive solvent such as acetone or methylene chloride. Soak parts that refuse to come apart in solvents overnight and then attempt disassembly the next morning.
NOTE be certain that no solvent residue is present on the parts, and remove the solvent container from the work area prior to using the blow torch. Always store the solvent in tins with the lid on in a flame-proof cabinet.
These recommendations assume all component parts are metal.
Removing these adhesives is more difficult, as often they are used to bond plastics and rubber, which will not withstand high temperatures or aggressive solvents. These adhesives are fairly brittle, so pulling parts apart with a peeling motion will make the bond easier to break. If possible, heat the parts to above 80°C (the point at which most cyanoacrylates lose a lot of strength) and then attempt to pull them apart. If parts are metal and not delicate, you can expose them to more extreme heat or solvent soaking in acetone or methylene chloride.
Soak skin bonded with cyanoacrylate in hot soapy water. For stuck fingers, roll a pencil gently between the fingers – do not peel. We don’t recommend using solvent on hands as it will de-fat the skin. Soapy water is not only good for removing adhesive from skin; if your components can take a nice long bath, they will de-bond over time. To shorten the time, use hot water.
These types of high-strength adhesives can be tricky to de-bond. Certain products have both high shear and peel strengths, so trying to peel parts apart may not work. Check the maximum operating temperature of the adhesive and assess if you can heat the component parts above this temperature to attempt disassembly. Most 2-part epoxies, acrylics, and PUs will start to degrade permanently at 200°C. For single-part epoxies, you will need a higher temperature. You can use methylene chloride to remove cured adhesive, but if you have a large or complex joint, it will only “eat” into the edges very slowly.
Extra care needs to be taken as substrates are typically glass and cannot therefore be peeled, whacked, or levered! The heating method of adhesive de-bonding could be a problem if the substrate materials are glass to metal, as differential thermal expansion and contraction could cause glass cracking. However, glass to glass, you could heat to the point that the adhesive degrades permanently (>200°C). For glass to metal, you can soak in solvent as per other adhesive types. Solvents may attack plastics bonded with UV adhesive, such as polycarbonate or acrylic. Even if you manage to get the components apart, removing cured adhesive will be a problem. Check the water absorption rates with the manufacturer; some products will absorb water. Boiling the parts in water may allow the adhesive to absorb enough water to soften it. Remove the adhesive while it is still wet. Upon drying, the strength will return.
Please contact Permabond for information on how to remove the toughest bonds.